Ground Water Resource Assessment Report 2022 by Central Govt

Ground Water Resource Assessment Report 2022 by Central Govt

November 14, 2022 - 6:04 am

Ground water extraction is at its lowest level since 2004 BY CGWB

The Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment Report for the entire nation for the year 2022 was released by the Union Minister of Jal Shakti. The assessment was completed jointly by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and the States/UTs, and it can be used by different stakeholders to make the best interventions possible. Similar joint exercises between the CGWB and the States/Union Territories were carried out in 1980, 1995, 2004, 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2020.

Condition of Groundwater in India

The overall annual groundwater recharge for the entire country is 437.60 billion cubic metres (BCM), and the total annual ground water extraction for the entire country is 239.16 BCM, according to the 2022 assessment study. In addition, 1006 of the country's total of 7089 assessment units have been labelled as "over-exploited." The annual groundwater recharge was 436 bcm while the annual groundwater extraction was 245 bcm, according to a 2020 assessment. 2017 saw a 432 bcm recharge and a 249 bcm extraction. Groundwater extraction is at its lowest level since 2004, when it peaked at 231 bcm, according to the 2022 assessment.


In-Depth Review of Assessment Of CGWB 

An in-depth review of the assessment's data reveals a rise in groundwater recharge, which may be primarily attributable to canal seepage, irrigation water return flow, recharges from water bodies/tanks, and recharges from water conservation buildings. In addition, study shows improvement in ground water conditions in 909 assessment units across the nation compared to assessment data from 2017. Additionally, a general decline in the quantity of overexploited units and a decline in groundwater extraction stage have both been noted.


Key Findings 

There are key findings such as : India is the largest user of Groundwater (GW) ( accounting for 1/4th of total withdrawal). The utilisation of GW for irrigation is 87%. The amount of over-exploited units (extraction > recharge) has dropped as has GW extraction. Currently, 67% of GW units are safe (extraction< 70% of recharge), 14% Overexploited and 4% at the Critical. In places like Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab, extraction is very high.


Impact of Covid-19 On CGWB           

The country-wide Covid-19 outbreak in the years 2020 and 2021 had a significant impact on the field operations of CGWB, particularly water level monitoring. For two consecutive pre-monsoon (April/May) seasons in 2020 and 2021, the water levels could not be observed. For the same reason, water levels in some states could not be tracked from November until 2020. The analysis of pre-monsoon water levels was done using the 2022 water level data because the data for the pre-monsoon of 2021 was not available.


The Way Forward                                               

While no explicit justifications for a dramatic decrease in groundwater extraction for irrigation, home, and industrial applications until 2022 have been provided in the report. These variations are mostly related to improved parameterization, improved well census data, and improved groundwater regime. The World Bank predicts that by 2032, around 60% of aquifers in the country will be in a critical state. Making communities aware and completely incorporating them is therefore essential for success. The most efficient way to address the groundwater disaster is to combine conservation and development efforts, from water extraction to water management, at the local level. To improve agricultural output by better managing the use of land and water in the command areas serviced by chosen big and medium irrigation projects. To close the gap between the potential created and its utilisation.